Saint Andrew

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Saint Andrew was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ, and patron saint of Scotland.


In 971, Kenneth II marshaled his army into battle against King Culen's forces, yelling "For Kenneth, Saint Andrew, and Scotland!"


Real World Background

Andrew (also known as Andréās) was born around 5-10 AD in the village of Bathsaida near the Galilean Sea and is believed to have been martyred in 60 AD in Patras, Greece. According to the Gospel of John, he was the brother of Saint Peter, an early disciple of John the Baptist, and later an apostle of Jesus.

Scotland's association with Saint Andrew may have initially gained steam when the Northumbrian King, Oswiu, shifted the kingdom's churches to Roman practices following the Synod of Whitby in 664. In that transition, the early Celtic Church might have concluded that Saint Columba was overshadowed by Rome's connections to Saint Peter, and figured that Peter's brother would be more on equal footing with the first Pope. The association also might have given the Scottish a means to political persuade the Pope for support against their frequent bouts with the English. Veneration for the saint increased during the reign of King Malcolm Canmore, and "Andermas" became a nationwide festival (November 30). [1][2] Following Robert the Bruce's victory at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, Saint Andrew was declared Scotland's patron saint with the Declaration of Arbroath, which asked the Pope in 1320 to recognize Scotland's independence and Robert the Bruce as the rightful King of Scotland. [3][4]

See Also